Rationing locations were posted in public view.
Rationing of gas and tires strongly depended on the distance to one's job. If one was fortunate enough to own an automobile and drive at the then specified speed of 35 mph, one might have a small amount of gas remaining at the end of the month to visit nearby relatives. Rationing resulted in one serious side effect: the black market, where people could buy rationed items on the sly, but at higher prices. The practice provoked mixed reactions from those who banded together to conserve as instructed, as opposed to those who fed the black market's subversion and profiteering.
For the most part, black marketeers dealt in clothing and liquor in Britain, and meat, sugar and gasoline in the United States. While life during the war meant daily sacrifice, few complained because they knew it was the men and women in uniform who were making the greater sacrifice. Saving aluminum cans meant more ammunition for the soldiers.
Economizing initiatives seemed endless as Americans were urged to conserve and recycle metal, paper and rubber. War bonds and stamps were sold to provide war funds, and the American people also united through volunteerism. Communities joined together to hold scrap-iron drives, and schoolchildren pasted saving stamps into bond books.
Others planted "Victory Gardens" to conserve food. For a small investment in soil, seed and time, families could enjoy fresh vegetables for months. By , an estimated 20 million victory gardens produced approximately 40 percent of America's vegetables. Training sessions were held to teach women to shop wisely, conserve food and plan nutritious meals, as well as teach them how to can food items. The homemaker planned family meals within the set limits. The government's persuasion of people to give up large amounts of red meats and fats resulted in more healthy eating.
The government also printed a monthly meal-planning guide with recipes and a daily menu. Good Housekeeping magazine printed a special section for rationed foods in its cookbook. Numerous national publications also featured articles explaining what rationing meant to America.
Then there were the food manufacturers who took advantage of the wartime shortages to flaunt their patriotism to their profit. The familiar blue box of Kraft Macaroni and Cheese Dinner gained great popularity as a substitute for meat and dairy products. Two boxes required only one rationing coupon, which resulted in 80 million boxes sold in Food substitutions became evident with real butter being replaced with Oleo margarine.
Cottage cheese took on a new significance as a substitute for meat, with sales exploding from million pounds in to million pounds in After three years of rationing, World War II came to a welcome end. Rationing, however, did not end until Life resumed as normal and the consumption of meat, butter, and sugar inevitably rose.
Joseph Rishel. Enormous sacrifice on the battlefields and tireless effort on the homefront—Pittsburgh answered the call to duty after the news of Pearl Harbor hit lo United States History. World War II Rationing. Lemons and bananas became unobtainable for most of the war; oranges continued to be sold but greengrocers customarily reserved them for children and pregnant women who could prove their condition by producing their distinctive ration books. Other domestically grown fruit such as apples still appeared from time to time. However, sellers imposed their own restrictions so that customers were often not allowed to buy more than one apple each.
Many grew their own vegetables, greatly encouraged by the highly successful "Dig for Victory" motivational campaign. In many children between ages five and seven years had become used to the wartime restrictions. When questioned about bananas, many did not believe such items existed.
Landed estate owners were able to enjoy game obtained on their property and share with their friends. A popular music-hall song, written 20 years previously but sung ironically, was " Yes! We Have No Bananas ". Most controversial was bread which was not rationed until after the war ended. The " national loaf " of wholemeal bread replaced the ordinary white variety to the distaste of most housewives who found it mushy, grey and easy to blame for digestion problems. This was partly in response to increasing public concerns that "luxury" off-ration foodstuffs were being unfairly obtained by those who could afford to dine regularly in restaurants.
Fish was not rationed, but prices increased considerably as the war progressed. The government initially did not ration fish since fishermen at risk from enemy attack had to be paid a premium for their catch to fish at all, but prices were controlled from Wartime fish and chips was often felt to be below standard because of the low-quality fat available for frying. As the war progressed rationing was extended to other commodities such as clothing which was rationed on a points system. When it was introduced, on 1 June , no clothing coupons had been issued.
At first unused margarine coupons in ration books were valid for clothing.
Rationing is the controlled distribution of scarce resources, goods, services, or an artificial For example, each person may be given "ration coupons" allowing him or Food rationing appeared in Poland after the First World War, and ration. Disease, Food supplementary allowance, Quantity, Coupons to be surrendered.
In the beginning the allowance was enough for about one new outfit per year; as the war progressed the points were reduced until buying a coat used almost a year's clothing coupons. On 1 July the basic civilian petrol ration, announced on 13 March , was abolished  Ivor Novello a British public figure in the entertainment industry was sent to prison for four weeks for misusing petrol coupons.
Henceforth vehicle fuel was only available to official users, such as the emergency services, bus companies and farmers. The priority users of fuel were always, of course, the armed forces. Fuel supplied to approved users was dyed , and use of this fuel for non-essential purposes was an offence. Certain foodstuffs that the s British consumer would find unusual, for example whale meat and canned snoek fish from South Africa, were not rationed.
Despite this they did not prove popular. In addition to rationing, the government equalized the food supply through subsidies on items consumed by the poor and the working class. Restaurants were initially exempt from rationing but this was resented, as people with more money could supplement their food rations by eating out frequently. The Ministry of Food in May issued new restrictions on restaurants: . About 2, new wartime establishments called British Restaurants were run by local authorities in schools and church halls.
Here a plain three-course meal cost only 9 d and no ration coupons were required. They evolved from the London County Council 's Londoners' Meals Service , which began as an emergency system for feeding people who had been blitzed out of their homes.
They were open to all and mostly served office and industrial workers. Using food production data, they fed themselves and other volunteers one egg, one pound of meat and four ounces of fish a week; one quarter pint 0. Two weeks of intensive outdoor exercise simulated the strenuous wartime physical work Britons would likely have to perform.
The scientists found that the subjects' health and performance remained very good after three months; the only negative results were the increased time needed for meals to consume the necessary calories from bread and potatoes, and what they described as a "remarkable" increase in flatulence from the large amount of starch in the diet.
The results—kept secret until after the war—gave the government confidence that, if necessary, food could be distributed equally to all, including high-value war workers, without causing widespread health problems. Britons' actual wartime diet was never as severe as in the Cambridge study because imports from the United States avoided the U-boats,  but rationing improved the health of British people; infant mortality declined and life expectancy rose, excluding deaths caused by hostilities. This was because it ensured that everyone had access to a varied diet with enough vitamins.
The standard rations during the Second World War were as follows. Quantities are per week unless otherwise stated. Offal and sausages were only rationed from to When sausages were not rationed, the meat needed to make them was so scarce that they often contained a high proportion of bread. Eggs were rationed and "allocated to ordinary consumers as available"; in thirty allocations of one egg each were made. Children and some invalids were allowed three a week; expectant mothers two on each allocation.
Arrangements were made for vegetarians so that other goods were substituted for their rations of meat. Each consumer received one tin of milk powder equivalent to 8 imperial pints or 4. Clothing rationing was announced on 1 June A major cause was the increased need for clothing materials to be utilized for producing uniforms. By this point in the war, one fourth of the population was wearing uniforms. Many of the female population who needed uniforms were part of the women's auxiliary forces. There were also a lot of volunteer services and organizations. The materials to make tarpaulins and tyres were heavily affected by this rationing.
It also became difficult for civilians to get shoes and boots. Another major part of rationing was the implementation of a coupon system. There were 66 points for clothing per year; in it was cut to 48, in to 36, and in to This system operated through a "points" system. Clothing was ranked and based on this ranking, civilians would be able to purchase clothing. Clothing rationing points could also be used for wool, cotton and household textiles.
Before rationing lace and frills were popular on knickers but these were soon banned so that material could be saved. The number of points that each piece of clothing would be valued at was determined by not only how much labor went into making it, but also how much material was used. A dress could run someone 11 coupons, whereas a pair of stockings only cost 2.
In , an overcoat wool and fully lined was 18 coupons; a man's suit, 26—29 according to lining ; Children aged 14—16 got 20 more coupons. When purchasing clothing not only did civilians need to have coupons, but they also had to purchase things with money. No points were required for second-hand clothing or fur coats , but their prices were fixed.
People had extra points for work clothes, such as overalls for factory work. New mothers also received extra coupons.
From March to May clothing austerity measures were introduced which restricted the number of buttons, pockets and pleats among other things on clothes. All types of soap were rationed. Coupons were allotted by weight or if liquid by quantity. In , the ration gave four coupons each month; babies and some workers and invalids were allowed more. Central heating was prohibited "in the summer months". Wrapping paper for most goods was prohibited. The paper shortage often made it more difficult than usual for authors to get work published. In , George Orwell wrote:.
In Mr Stanley Unwin 's recent pamphlet Publishing in Peace and War , some interesting facts are given about the quantities of paper allotted by the Government for various purposes. Here are the present figures:. A particularly interesting detail is that out of the , tons allotted to the Stationery Office, the War Office gets no less than 25, tons, or more than the whole of the book trade put together. At the same time paper for books is so short that even the most hackneyed "classic" is liable to be out of print, many schools are short of textbooks, new writers get no chance to start and even established writers have to expect a gap of a year or two years between finishing a book and seeing it published.
Whether rationed or not, many consumer goods became difficult to obtain because of the shortage of components. Examples included razor blades , baby bottles , alarm clocks, frying pans and pots. Balloons and sugar for cakes for birthday parties were partially or completely unavailable. Many fathers saved bits of wood to build toys for Christmas presents,  and Christmas trees were almost impossible to obtain due to timber rationing. Some aspects of rationing became stricter for some years after the war.
At the time this was presented as needed to feed people in European areas under British control, whose economies had been devastated by the fighting. Frequent strikes by some workers most critically dock workers made things worse.
In the late s the Conservative Party exploited and incited growing public anger at rationing, scarcity, controls, austerity and government bureaucracy. They used the dissatisfaction with the socialistic and egalitarian policies of the Labour Party to rally middle-class supporters and build a political comeback that won the general election.
Their appeal was especially effective to housewives, who faced more difficult shopping conditions after the war than during it. Although rationing formally ended in , cheese production remained depressed for decades afterwards. During rationing, most milk in Britain was used to make one kind of cheese, nicknamed Government Cheddar not to be confused with the government cheese issued by the US welfare system. Petrol rationing was briefly reintroduced in late during the Suez Crisis but ended again on 14 May Petrol coupons were issued for a short time as preparation for the possibility of petrol rationing during the oil crisis.