As the Sangha gradually grew in number and evolved into a more complex society, occasions inevitably arose when a member would act in an unskillful way. Whenever one of these cases was brought to the Buddha's attention, he would lay down a rule establishing a suitable punishment for the offense, as a deterrent to future misconduct. The Buddha's standard reprimand was itself a powerful corrective:.
It is not fit, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is not proper, it is unworthy of a recluse, it is not lawful, it ought not to be done. How could you, foolish man, having gone forth under this Dhamma and Discipline which are well-taught, [commit such and such offense]? It is not, foolish man, for the benefit of un-believers, nor for the increase in the number of believers, but, foolish man, it is to the detriment of both unbelievers and believers, and it causes wavering in some. Horner London: Pali Text Society, , pp.
Some see the Vinaya as a throwback to an archaic patriarchy, based on a hodge-podge of ancient rules and customs — quaint cultural relics that only obscure the essence of "true" Buddhist practice. This misguided view overlooks one crucial fact: it is thanks to the unbroken lineage of monastics who have consistently upheld and protected the rules of the Vinaya for almost 2, years that we find ourselves today with the luxury of receiving the priceless teachings of Dhamma.
Were it not for the Vinaya, and for those who continue to keep it alive to this day, there would be no Buddhism. It helps to keep in mind that the name the Buddha gave to the spiritual path he taught was "Dhamma-vinaya" — the Doctrine Dhamma and Discipline Vinaya — suggesting an integrated body of wisdom and ethical training. The Vinaya is thus an indispensable facet and foundation of all the Buddha's teachings, inseparable from the Dhamma, and worthy of study by all followers — lay and ordained, alike.
Lay practitioners will find in the Vinaya Pitaka many valuable lessons concerning human nature, guidance on how to establish and maintain a harmonious community or organization, and many profound teachings of the Dhamma itself. But its greatest value, perhaps, lies in its power to inspire the layperson to consider the extraordinary possibilities presented by a life of true renunciation, a life lived fully in tune with the Dhamma.
The Buddha's standard reprimand was itself a powerful corrective: It is not fit, foolish man, it is not becoming, it is not proper, it is unworthy of a recluse, it is not lawful, it ought not to be done. Suttavibhanga — the basic rules of conduct Patimokkha for bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, along with the "origin story" for each one. This recitation became the basis of the Vinaya.
Also, like the Sutta-Pitaka, the Vinaya was preserved by being memorized and chanted by generations of monks and nuns. Eventually, the rules were being chanted by widely separated groups of early Buddhists, in different languages.
The Vinaya Piṭaka is a Buddhist scripture, one of the three parts that make up the Tripiṭaka (lit. Three Baskets). The other two parts of the Tripiṭaka are the. The Abhidhamma Piṭaka is the last of the three pitakas (Pali for "baskets") constituting the Pali . The second deals with material form, beginning with its own mātikā, classifying by ones, twos and so on, and explaining afterwards. The third.
As a result, over the centuries there came to be several somewhat different versions of the Vinaya. Of these, three are still in use. The Mulasarvativadin Vinaya was brought to Tibet in the 8th century by the Indian scholar Shantarakshita.
It takes up thirteen volumes of the volumes of the Tibetan Buddhist canon Kangyur. The Tibetan Vinaya also contains rules of conduct Patimokkha for monks and nuns; Skandhakas, which corresponds to the Pali Khandhaka; and appendices that partly correspond to the Pali Parivara. This Vinaya was translated into Chinese in the early 5th century. It is sometimes called "the Vinaya in four parts. These three versions of the Vinaya are sometimes referred to as lineages. This refers to a practice initiated by the Buddha. When the Buddha first began to ordain monks and nuns, he performed a simple ceremony himself.
As the monastic sangha grew, there came a time when this was no longer practical. So, he allowed ordinations to be performed by others under certain rules, which are explained in the three Vinayas.
Among the conditions is that a certain number of ordained monastics must be present at each ordination. In this way, it is believed there is an unbroken lineage of ordinations going back to the Buddha himself. The three Vinayas have similar, but not identical, rules.
For this reason, Tibetan monastics sometimes say they are of the Mulasarvastivada lineage. Chinese, Tibetan, Taiwanese, etc. In recent years, this has come to be an issue within Theravada Buddhism, because in most Theravada countries the lineages of nuns came to an end centuries ago.
Jataka, 8. This book consists of more than two hundred Debates on questions of Doctrine. Also, like the Sutta-Pitaka, the Vinaya was preserved by being memorized and chanted by generations of monks and nuns. A monk is recorded to have had sexual intercourse with a yakkhinl Vin. Although Ananda is said to have recited all of the Buddha's sermons, some parts of the Khuddaka Nikaya -- "collection of little texts" -- were not incorporated into the canon until the Third Buddhist Council. Rhys Davids and Oldenberg think that when the rules had been formulated and each word interpreted, some explanation was wanted as to how the rules origin- ated. This, Sariputta, is the cause, this the reason why when Kakusandha was the lord, and when Konagamana was the lord and when Kassapa was the lord, the Brahma-life lasted long.
Today women in those countries are allowed to be something like honorary nuns, but full ordination is denied to them because there are no ordained nuns to attend the ordinations, as called for in the Vinaya. Some would-be nuns have tried to get around this technicality by importing nuns from Mahayana countries, such as Taiwan, to attend the ordinations.